Un libro (del latín liber, libri) es una obra impresa, manuscrita o pintada en una serie de hojas de papel, pergamino, vitela u otro material, unidas por un lado (es.

Kessler, Cindy Foster, Frances E. Calkins, and Thomas L. N Engl J Med ; Many people use unconventional therapies for health problems, but the extent of this use and the costs are not known. We conducted a national survey to determine the prevalence, costs, and patterns of use of unconventional therapies, such as acupuncture and chiropractic. Full Text of Background We limited the therapies studied to 16 commonly used interventions neither taught widely in U.

We completed telephone interviews with adults response rate, 67 percent in a national sample of adults 18 years of age or older in We asked respondents to report any serious or bothersome medical conditions and details of their use of conventional medical services; we then read more about their use of unconventional therapy.

Full Text of Methods One in three respondents 34 percent reported using at least one unconventional therapy in the past year, and a third of these saw providers for Ruby Fortune von 50 Rubel therapy. The frequency of click of unconventional therapy varied somewhat among sociodemographic groups, with the highest use reported by nonblack persons from 25 to 49 years of age who had relatively more education and higher incomes.

The majority used unconventional therapy for chronic, as opposed to life-threatening, medical conditions. Among those who used unconventional therapy for serious medical conditions, the vast majority 83 percent also sought treatment for the same condition from a medical doctor; however, 72 percent of the respondents who used unconventional therapy did not go here their medical doctor that they had done so.

Extrapolation to the U. This number exceeds the number of visits to all Just click for source. Full Text of Results The frequency of use of unconventional therapy in the United States is far higher than previously reported.

Medical doctors should ask about their patients' use of unconventional therapy whenever they obtain a medical history. Full Text of Discussion Unconventional, alternative, or click the following article therapies are difficult to define, because they encompass a broad spectrum of practices and beliefs.

From a sociological standpoint, unconventional therapy refers to medical practices that are not in conformity with the standards of the medical community 2. Here we define unconventional therapies as medical interventions not taught widely at U. Examples include acupuncture, chiropractic, and massage therapy. Studies based on samples Ruby Fortune von 50 Rubel limited geographic areas suggest that the use of Ruby Fortune von 50 Rubel therapy is widespread In particular, unconventional therapies are frequently used by patients with cancer, arthritis, chronic back pain, 3,14 the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, 15 gastrointestinal problems, 16,17 chronic renal failure, 18 and eating disorders Little is known, however, about the overall prevalence, cost, and patterns of use of unconventional therapy in click here United States 1, To improve our understanding of the use of unconventional therapy, we conducted a national telephone survey focusing on 16 interventions found, on the basis of pilot research, to be representative of unconventional therapies used commonly in the United States.

Our study focused on the following questions: What is the extent of use of unconventional therapy in the United States? How much is spent annually on these therapies, including out-of-pocket and third-party payments? What sociodemographic factors distinguish users of unconventional therapy from nonusers?

For what medical Ruby Fortune von 50 Rubel do people most commonly use unconventional therapy? And to what extent are medical doctors responsible for or informed about the use of unconventional therapy by their patients? We conducted our survey by telephone between January 18 and March 7, The sample was selected by means of random-digit dialing We limited eligibility to English-speaking persons, 18 years of age or older, in whom cognitive or physical impairment did not prevent the completion of the interview.

We designed the survey with a target sample of Assuming an estimated prevalence of use of unconventional therapy between 10 and 50 percent, we calculated that interviews should produce estimated prevalence rates with 95 percent confidence intervals of 2 to 3 percent. Of the initial sample of telephone numbers, 38 percent were nonworking, and 13 percent were not assigned to households.

We declared respondents ineligible because they did not speak English 97because of cognitive or physical incapacity 96or because they were temporarily unavailable Among spielen Spielautomaten für Geld remaining eligible respondents, completed the interview, declined to participate 81 of them before we could establish eligibilityand began the interview but stopped before completing all questions.

These figures correspond to a 67 percent overall response rate among eligible respondents. Only one respondent per household was eligible to be interviewed. This person was selected by computer randomization from the list of household members given by the first household member contacted. Persons with responses substantially different один ein Online-Casino-Hosting ней the remainder of the sample for example, those i-Spielautomaten mit virtuellem Geld frequent visits in einem Online-Casino erforderlich a provider of unconventional therapy at no cost were contacted again by a supervisor for verification or clarification of their responses.

Since we asked respondents about the use Ruby Fortune von 50 Rubel unconventional therapy during the 12 months before the interview, we Ruby Fortune von 50 Rubel the results representative of We described the interview to the respondents as a survey by investigators from Harvard Medical School that was designed to assess the health care practices of Americans.

We made no mention of unconventional therapy while recruiting the respondents. The interviews, which averaged 25 minutes in length, began with questions on the respondents' health, health worries, days in bed at home or in the hospital, and indicators of functional impairment caused by health problems. We then asked the respondents about their http://muggel-frei.de/online-casinos-so-schlecht.php with medical doctors during the past 12 months.

We next assessed the respondents' medical problems. Please tell me if you have had any of these conditions in the past 12 months. Only 8 percent of the respondents reported conditions not included in our list.

At this point we asked respondents about their check this out of unconventional therapy.

The interviewers' text read as follows: For example, a respondent listing back problems as a principal medical condition was asked whether he or she had used any of the 16 unconventional therapies for this problem during the past 12 months. Some of the unconventional therapies studied warrant further clarification. For example, what learn more here do you use? In addition, some users of unconventional therapy may visit a provider less often than once a year but may continue to use the prescribed unconventional therapy.

In order to learn more about these variations, we asked about lifetime visits and recent visits in the past 12 months to providers of unconventional therapy.

We did not ask whether the respondents' providers of unconventional therapy were medical doctors. We asked about total charges for visits to providers of unconventional therapy during the past 12 months and whether insurance paid any of these charges. The interviewers asked http://muggel-frei.de/spielautomat-gnome.php the respondents had discussed the use of each unconventional therapy with their medical doctors and collected data on the respondents' demographic characteristics.

We also asked questions pertaining to the respondents' perceptions of the efficacy of unconventional therapies and the quality of their interactions with the providers.

We shall report these data separately. Pilot research Ruby Fortune von 50 Rubel that, in addition to the 16 unconventional therapies we studied, prayer and exercise are commonly used in the United States for purposes related to health. No additional questions were asked about these two activities.

In the case of prayer, we thought such questions would be inappropriate. As for exercise, we thought the term was too vague and the practice sufficiently ubiquitous to preclude the gathering of useful data. Unless they are explicitly mentioned, all analyses described here excluded prayer and exercise. We weighted the data to adjust for variations among households in the number of telephones and number of Wie bekomme ich Geld aus einem Casino members Ruby Fortune von 50 Rubel to participate in the survey.

We also weighted the data to match our sample to the distribution of the U. Census, for age, sex, and education. Using the Taylor series approximation method for calculating standard errors, we carried out tests of significance appropriate for weighted data using the SUDAAN software system We based our extrapolations of the estimates from the survey to the total U.

Census Bureau, excludes homeless and institutionalized persons on preliminary figures from this web page U. Census, which reports the total U. The characteristics of the subjects we interviewed are shown in Table 1 Table 1 Characteristics of the Subjects Interviewed.

The sociodemographic characteristics of the survey population were similar to those in the U. National Health Interview Survey 23 with respect to age, sex, race, education, marital status, and region of the country.

Excluding exercise and prayer, one in three respondents 34 percent used at least one unconventional therapy in Nearly two thirds 64 percent of those who used unconventional therapy did so without visiting a provider of unconventional therapy during the Ruby Fortune von 50 Rubel months before the interview, whereas the one third who did see a provider made an average of 19 visits.

The use of unconventional therapy was not confined to any narrow segment of U. Ruby Fortune von 50 Rubel rates of use ranged from 23 to 53 percent in all sociodemographic groups we considered. There were no significant differences according to sex or insurance status and only small variations according to the Ruby Fortune von 50 Rubel of the community.

The vast majority of respondents 83 percent reported one or more principal medical conditions in More than half 58 percent of respondents with Ruby Fortune von 50 Rubel least one principal medical condition saw a medical doctor but not a provider of unconventional therapy in ; 3 percent saw only a provider of unconventional therapy; 7 percent saw both a medical doctor and a provider of unconventional therapy; and 33 percent saw neither for at least one principal medical condition Figure 1 Figure 1 Percentage of Respondents Reporting at Least One Principal Medical Condition Who Saw a Medical Doctor or Provider of Unconventional Therapy in Eighty-three percent of the respondents reported one or more principal medical conditions.

On average, 1 in 4 respondents 25 percent used unconventional therapy and 1 in 10 10 percent went to a provider of unconventional therapy for a principal medical condition in Among all the conditions studied, the frequency of use of unconventional therapy was highest for back problems 36 percentanxiety 28 percentheadaches 27 percentchronic pain 26 percentand cancer or tumors 24 percent. Consistent with the prevalence of cancer in the general population, the use of unconventional therapy for cancer accounted for less than 3 percent Ruby Fortune von 50 Rubel all use.

Relaxation techniques, Ruby Fortune von 50 Rubel, and massage were the unconventional therapies used most often in Among respondents who reported a principal medical condition and used unconventional therapy for that condition, only 4 percent saw a provider of unconventional therapy without also seeing a medical doctor.

No respondent saw a provider of unconventional therapy, but not a medical doctor, for the treatment of Ruby Fortune von 50 Rubel, diabetes, lung problems, skin problems, high blood pressure, urinary tract problems, or dental problems. To clarify further the this web page of use of unconventional therapy, we defined and investigated two predominant patterns of care for each principal medical condition: The unconventional pattern was more common than Ruby Fortune von 50 Rubel conventional pattern for 5 of the 10 most frequently cited principal medical conditions: Among respondents who saw Ruby Fortune von 50 Rubel medical doctor for at least one principal medical condition, more than one in four 28 percent also used unconventional therapy, and one in nine 11 percent saw a provider of unconventional therapy for the same condition during the 12 months before the survey Figure 2 Figure 2 Use of Unconventional Therapy by Respondents Who Saw a Http://muggel-frei.de/wie-roulette-online-casino-spielen-1.php Doctor for a Principal Medical Condition in The 10 most commonly reported conditions are shown in descending order of prevalence.


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